The firm of Horace Waters & Co. is one of the older and more historical names in the American piano industry. Horace Waters established his 'Piano & Music Establishment' in New York in 1845. In the first decade, Waters was a large retailer for pianos, melodeons, organs, sheet music and other miscellaneous musical merchandise. In the late 1850s Waters began building his own organs and melodeons with great success. After the Civil War, Horace Waters began building pianos in addition to his organ and melodeon line. In about 1864, Waters admitted his two sons T. Leeds and Horace Jr. into the firm. Pianos built during this period were often labeled as "Waters & Sons". The organs and melodeons were discontinued in the last part of the 19th Century due to the rising popularity of the piano. Waters was known for building very high quality instruments, and they enjoyed a very good reputation in the industry. In the 20th Century, Horace Waters produced pianos under the names of Horace Waters & Co., Waters, and Chester. He also produced a line of player pianos under the name "Waters Autola". Horace Waters went out of business in about 1949.